The outcome of the wars established the enduring legacy of the Roman Empire as one of the greatest in the whole of history. August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. The Romans took over the Carthaginian mantle as the rulers of the seas and so, if Carthage were to wrest control back from its arch-enemy, it would have to fight on land, and that required money, lots of it. There were many potential causes of the Second Punic War, but the harsh result of the First Punic War was the most influential factor in the start of the Second Punic War. Second Punic War 218 B.C. Over the course of more than a century the two most powerful nations in the Mediterranean battled for supremacy. Hannibal surprised them by deciding to invade Italy. ‘God has given to man no sharper spur to victory than contempt of. There followed another quick victory against a 4,000-strong Carthaginian cavalry force. The most significant and decisive of the three was the second Punic War, where Hannibal nearly succeeded in conquering the Roman world. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… The two sides did not clash, rather, each established a camp to see out the winter. Hamilcar Barca was recalled from Sicily and he joined Hanno the Great, who had recently made significant conquests in Libya, to quash the rebellion. Rome, despite having a dangerous enemy on its doorstep, was tenacious if nothing else and rejected all offers of a peace deal. Rome, with its greatest enemy crushed, was now, and would remain for centuries, the unchallenged master of the Mediterranean. Before Carthage could think about Rome, it first had to deal with the continued unrest closer to home. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. the war left Rome in control - for the first time - of Cisapline Gaul, Sicily, Sardinia and Spain (which they decided to keep) - i.e. What were the outcomes of the second Punic War? The Second Punic War was underway. He supplemented his own force with local recruits and amassed a 50,000-strong army with a corps of 100 elephants. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. The Second Punic War was lost and Hannibal sued for peace terms. This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania. After three bad losses worse was to follow for Rome in August 216 BCE when Hannibal, moving into southern Italy, won a great victory against a much larger opposing army (80,000 men) at Cannae in Apulia (modern Puglia) in the heel of the Italian peninsula. The outbreak of the Second Punic War began when Hannibal moved north across Ebro to begin his historic march over the Alps. Scipio fielded 30,000 infantry and 5,500 cavalry, which included 6,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry from Masinissa. Hannibal, along with a massive army and the inclusion of elephants, fought a battle against the Roman army at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene. Scipio preferred to focus on Spain and won another victory, again against a more numerous opponent, at Ilipa in 206 BCE. (Keith Sidwell, 16) The Punic war was broken into, nation-state from defeat in the First Punic War (264–241 BC) to conquer much of Iberia. Scipio Africanus the Elderby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). The battle is referred to as ‘the battle of Zama’ because that town was on Hannibal’s route to the battlefield. In 215 BCE Rome attacked southern Spain, dramatically defeating Hasdrubal at the battle of Ibera in 215 BCE. First Punic War - Roman victory - Carthage lost control of Sicily to Rome Second Punic War - Roman victory - Carthage lost control of all of it's territory apart from the city itself. Syphax would later defect to the Carthaginians, and the Roman Senate was initially against an invasion, but eventually Scipio got his backing and was ready to strike at the soft underbelly of the Carthaginian held territories in Africa, just as Hannibal was doing in southern Italy. Following the terms of surrender in 241 BCE, Carthage, having lost the longest war in ancient history up to that point, agreed to withdraw from Sicily and pay reparations to Rome of 3,200 talents. Fabius knew that, as at Cannae, Hannibal might win direct confrontations, but he could be worn down by blocking his supplies by sea and entrapping him in Italy. Indeed, the conflict between the two nations of Rome, Implementing A New Paradigm Of Strategic Planning, Howard Gardner 's Theory On Multiple Intelligences, Understanding The Development Of Monotheism. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The Second Punic War, fought between the Romans and the Carthaginians is no exception. Back in Spain, Scipio Africanus was gaining local allies, and he defeated a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal at Baecula in 208 BCE. Prior to that, it was the opportunity Romans was waiting for. This force consisted of 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, and Gisgo was almost immediately joined by the Numidian Syphax with his army of 50,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. Further, Carthage could not make war without Rome’s permission, had to recognise the territories of the new Numidian king Masinissa, and pay in reparations to Rome the huge sum of 10,000 talents over the next half century. (Chris Scarre, 24-25) The word Punic comes from the Latin derivation of the word Punicus which translates to "Carthaginian", referring to the Carthaginian’s Phoenician ancestors. The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally... Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general... Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with. Without a significant fleet and having lost their strategically important fortresses in Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, the Carthaginians had to look elsewhere for a source of money to fund their armies. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. In 205 BCE, after being appointed consul, Scipio crossed the Mediterranean to Sicily and strengthened his army. Their adversaries known as the Carthaginians were an advanced, time Rome expanded its’ empire and grew in power, it also had many rivals to that power. In addition, Scipio had conquered Tunis. Marcellus shipped large amounts of Greek art back to Rome in a novel method of impressing the populace with his success. Both Syracuse and Tarentum defected to Carthage in 214 and 212 BCE respectively, but Hannibal was being left without support in Italy. Under Philip V, the Macedonians proved no match for the Roman general Marcus Valerius Laevinus, and Macedon was forced out of the Adriatic and into a war with the Aetolian Confederacy in north-west Greece. Books 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). Cornelius Scipio Calvus were killed and their armies seriously defeated in the Tader valley in 211 BCE. The First Punic War had been tremendously costly to both sides but Rome’s seemingly inexhaustible resources, especially its capacity to renew large naval fleets meant that, ultimately, Carthage could not compete with the Mediterranean’s newest superpower. Outcome- In the Second Punic War, the incomparable Carthaginian general Hannibal attacked Italy and scored extraordinary triumphs at Lake Trasimene and Cannae before his inevitable destruction on acco view the full answer. Rome might have feared a land battle but they were still masters of the seas, and this meant that Hannibal could not be resupplied. One of the most noteworthy battles fought by the Romans are the Punic wars, a series of three battles that span roughly between 264 B.C.E and 146 B.C.E. Carthage declined and Rome declared war in March 218 BCE. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Second_Punic_War/. Accordingly, Hannibal left Hasdrubal Barca (son of Hamilcar Barca) in charge of things in Spain and audaciously crossed the Alps in 15 days. Carthage would briefly rise again for a Third Punic War 50 years later but its position as a great Mediterranean power was now lost forever. Hannibal desperately tried to conquer a port city, notably Neapolis (Naples) and Tarentum (Taranto), but all attempts failed, as did repeated attacks on Nola. Introduction Remember to cite your sources. The expedition was not without cost. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. The outcome of the First Punic War was a resounding victory to Rome and the Carthage leadership signing a peace treaty advising as such. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. Largest Wars that had ever taken place Elderby Mark Cartwright ( CC )! 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