Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. Colomb Med (Cali). Because these altered immune responses are genetically determined and cannot be altered with our present strategies, the altered host response can be considered as a non-modifiable risk factor. Underlying immuno-deficiencies—e.g., AIDS 8. This disorder has been shown to be positively associated with periodontal bone loss, …………… Contents available in the book…………. Rather, the disease has already occurred and the modifying factor alters the progression of the disease by modifying the body’s response to the disease itself or to the treatment. Systemic risk factors recently have been identified by large epidemiologic studies using multifactorial statistical analyses to correct for confounding or associated co-risk factors. Objectives. 2018 Dec 30;49(4):280-287. doi: 10.25100/cm.v49i3.3919. IL-1 and TNF-α gene polymorphism have been studied extensively and a positive correlation has been demonstrated between periodontitis and these polymorphisms 28-31. The dietary habits of young and adolescents are different from that of older individuals. It has been demonstrated that the susceptibility of different individuals to periodontitis for the same amount of local factors is variable. The reduction of this pathogenic microflora has been found to be strongly associated with improvement in periodontal health 10-13. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology. Certain factors increase the risk for periodontal disease: 1. Contents available in the book…………. Other more subtle systemic and environmental issues ma… Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. Smoking is the No. Risk factors which we know today as important include diabetes mellitus, especially in individuals in whom metabolic control is poor, and cigarette smoking. Epub 2019 Jun 3. Diabetes 3. Stress 5. Step 1. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. Contreras A, Umeda M, Chen C, Bakker I, Morrison JL, Slots J. J Periodontol. Furthermore, smokers have been observed to smoke more under stress which further deteriorates their periodontal status. The periodontal breakdown has been found to be more among smokers as compared to non-smokers 14, 15. Subgingival margins of the restorations have been shown to have a positive correlation with the presence of gingival inflammation, Bleeding on probing is one of the earliest indicators of gingival inflammation. A previous history of periodontitis is a good predictor of future risk of periodontal disease. Albandar JM. However, there are at least two significant risk factors-smoking and diabetes-which demand attention in current management of periodontal disease. Substance abuse 7. Contents available in the book…………. A decreased estrogen production following menopause is associated with a decreased mineral density of bones 56. Initiation and progression of periodontal infections are clearly modified by local and systemic conditions called risk factors. Initiation and progression of periodontal infections are clearly modified by local and systemic conditions called risk factors. Diseases in which neutrophil dysfunction occurs include the lazy leukocyte syndrome associated with localized juvenile periodontitis, cyclic neutropenia, and congenital neutropenia. Michalowicz BS. A decreased salivary flow is associated with a decreased flushing effect of saliva in the oral cavity, which may contribute to the increased periodontal disease activity. IL-1 and TNF-α gene polymorphism have been studied extensively and a positive correlation has been demonstrated between periodontitis and these polymorphisms, The present research on the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease suggests that most of the tissue destruction caused by host-microbial interaction is primarily by host-derived chemical mediators. Local factors Dental plaque Tobacco … Relationship between herpesviruses and adult periodontitis and periodontopathic bacteria. These areas become inaccessible for cleaning by the patient and promote the formation of a periodontal pocket. These include anti-hypertensive drugs, narcotic analgesics, some tranquilizers and sedatives, antihistamines, and antimetabolites. A lot of research has been done in the last few decades to find out various risk factors responsible for periodontal disease progression. Certain drugs have been shown to be associated with decreased salivary flow. Bridges that no longer fit properly 11. It can be concluded from the above discussion that risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal diseases, as well as they affect the overall treatment plan designed for the patient. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. In a 12 month study, it was demonstrated that patients who had continuously refrained from smoking for the entire study period had a significant reduction in probing depths as compared to smokers 17. An overall assessment of risk factors is an integral part of the periodontal maintenance program. Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Epub 2020 Aug 12. These include genetic factors, host response, age, gender and socioeconomic status. Many studies and reviews have been published which support a relationship between periodontitis and diabetes 19-23. NIH This is because bleeding on probing indicates the presence of inflammation but not the severity of periodontal attachment loss. In a study 66 on data obtained from NHANES III from 13,198 individuals which employed 20 years and older adults, it was observed that a linear relationship existed between a number of alcoholic drinks per week and log clinical attachment loss (P= 0.0001). 2005 Jul 1;49(3):517-32. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature Yousef A. AlJehani Dental Health Department, Colleg e of Applied Medical Sciences, K ing Saud University, P .O. Journal of periodontology. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Thus, smoking can be considered as a modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal diseases. The reason suggested for this difference is a better education level and more access to oral health care services by individuals with good socioeconomic status. A detailed description of the effect of smoking on periodontitis has been given in “Smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis”. These two risk factors markedly affect the initiation and progression of periodontitis, and attempts to manage these factors are now an important component of prevention and treatment of adult periodontitis. Further, it has been found that certain individuals mount an abnormal host response to the microbial challenge. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: Bridges that no longer fit properly trap food debris and allow dental plaque to accumulate and grow between the crown and gums Malocclusion - Crooked teeth make difficult the removal of dental plaque © 1996 American Academy of Periodontology. 1 environmental and behavioral risk factor for periodontal disease, increasing the rate of bone resorption, chronic inflammation, and suppression of antibodies, which facilitates bacterial flourishing. Contents available in the book…………. Further-more, the advanced periodontal bone loss is less commonly observed in young individuals. Genetics 3. J Periodontol 1996;67:1041-1049. Relationship between the presence of certain bacterial pathogens and periodontal status of urban Thai adults. The risk markers for periodontal disease include the previous history of periodontal disease and bleeding on probing. 1. Present data strongly suggest that genetic factors are important risk factors for periodontal disease progression. However, more clinical research is required to establish alcohol consumption as a risk factor for periodontal diseases. Thus, a low dietary intake of vitamin-C and calcium can adversely affect the periodontal status of the individual 65. 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):514-518. doi: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.07.020. The treatment planning of the patient should be done taking into consideration the overall risk. Thus, stress can be considered as a modifiable risk factor that may influence the severity of periodontal diseases. In the following sections, we shall study in brief about these risk factors with their details in the upcoming chapters. Many studies and reviews have been published which support a relationship between periodontitis and diabetes, Psychological stress is another risk factor for periodontal diseases, Non-modifiable risk factors (Risk determinants), Present data strongly suggest that genetic factors are important risk factors for periodontal disease progression. Khouja T, Miller RG, Moore PA, Orchard TJ, Costacou T. J Diabetes Complications. A detailed description of the genetic basis of periodontal diseases has been given in “Role of genetics in pathogenesis of periodontal diseases”. Periodontal risk assessment is the overall evaluation of the patient to assess the risk for the development of periodontitis. It has been observed that stressed, anxious, or depressed persons tend to neglect their oral hygiene. Smoking cessation has been shown to improve periodontal health. Patients having existing severe attachment loss are at a higher risk for future attachment loss. These include osteoporosis, HIV/AIDS, obesity, alcohol consumption, infrequent dental visits, drug intake associated periodontal disorders and iatrogenic factors. Calcium intake was also found to be reduced in this age group. Mt Sinai J Med. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases. Poor oral hygiene and pathogenic microflora: There is strong evidence in favor of the role of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms in the initiation and progression of periodontal diseases. Psychological stress is another risk factor for periodontal diseases 24. It may alter the pH of the oral cavity, thus affecting plaque composition 67. There are five key concepts that an oral health provider should know about periodontitis risk factors. Poor oral hygiene 4. 2005 Oct;39(1):118-31. The local factors include pre-existing disease as evidenced by deep probing depths and plaque retention areas associated with defective restorations. 2002;29:177-206. Stress has been shown to result in elevated levels of cortisols which further have been positively associated with the extent and severity of periodontitis 25. This website is a small attempt to create an easy approach to understand periodontology for the students who are facing difficulties during the graduation and the post-graduation courses in our field. References are available in the hard-copy of the website. Risk factors which we know today as important include diabetes mellitus, especially in individuals in whom metabolic control is poor, and cigarette smoking. Recent studies also point to several potentially important periodontal risk indicators. To establish a factor as a risk factor or determinant for periodontal disease, the evidence is gathered from longitudinal cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case series, case-control study, and controlled clinical trials. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Genetics 10. The local factors include dental plaque and plaque retentive areas such as dental calculus and defective restorations. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Certain drugs which are in a chewable form, commonly have sugar as one of their constituents. A decreased salivary flow is associated with a decreased flushing effect of saliva in the oral cavity, which may contribute to the increased periodontal disease activity. NLM Controlling Systemic Risk Factors.Several risk factors have well established associations with both periodontal and systemic diseases, such as diabetes, smoking, stress, immunodeficiency, medications, obesity, hormones, and nutrition. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Investigation of the levels of different salivary stress markers in chronic periodontitis patients. Factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis include: 1. Thus, reduction in the microbial load around the teeth is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Modifiable risk factors are usually environmental or behavioral in nature, whereas non-modifiable risk factors are usually intrinsic to the individual and therefore can not be easily changed. A periodontal exam and assessment of both new and current patients in the dental practice is more important than ever. Albandar JM. Grittayaphong C. J Periodontol psychological stress gingival health overhanging margins of crowns facilitate the accumulation of food and! Individual 65 have discussed each factor ’ s chances of developing periodontal disease the. T. 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