The monument later suffered some damage from Allied soldiers using it for target practice in World War II, and during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. The Old Persian text was copied and deciphered before recovery and copying of the Elamite and Babylonian inscriptions had even been attempted, which proved to be a good deciphering strategy, since Old Persian script was easier to study due to its alphabetic nature and because the language it represents had naturally evolved via Middle Persian to the living modern Persian language dialects, and was also related to the Avestan language, used in the Zoroastrian book the Avesta. The Behistun Relief. Darius was the son of Hystaspes, the satrap (provincial governor) of Parthia.The principal contemporary sources for his history are his own inscriptions, especially the great trilingual inscription on the Bīsitūn (Behistun) rock at the village of the same name, in which he tells how he gained the throne. ""[15], Relief of Arakha: "This is Arakha. From Persepolis to Jerusalem: A Reevaluation of Old Persian-Hebrew Contact in the Achaemenid Period, Artist or Architect: Darius the Great, ruled 522–486 BCE, Offbeat Fact: The earliest known example of political propaganda, Languages: Old Persian, Elamite, Akkadian. Darius's main purpose was to establish the legitimacy of his claim to Cyrus the Great's throne, to which he had no blood connection. Long before it was Iran, this region was known as Persia, and it was the center of some of the greatest empires the world has ever known. The idea of the "Lie" as a sign of evil and corruption was a key concept in Zoroastrian/Early Persian morality. Diodorus also writes of "Bagistanon" and claims it was inscribed by Semiramis. The Behistun Inscription The monument and the inscription. The Behistun (also spelt Bisotoun, Bistoon, Bisitun, Bisutun) Historic Site is located in the northwest Iranian province of Kermanshah on a branch of the Aryan Trade Roads (also called the Silk Roads), a portion of which became the Royal Road of Darius I, the Great. The most notable of all the inscriptions is the Behistun Inscription written by Darius I which contains many references to Ahura Mazda. Why is the Behistun Rock Important? 1, pp. 10, no. [4] Niebuhr's transcriptions were used by Georg Friedrich Grotefend and others in their efforts to decipher the Old Persian cuneiform script. 392–416, 1938, Paul J. Kosmin, A New Hypothesis: The Behistun Inscription as Imperial Calendar, Iran - Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, August 2018, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 16:22. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. What has been recovered of them, including a statue dedicated in 148 BC, is consistent with Tacitus's description. King Darius says: That is why we are called Achaemenids; from antiquity we have been noble; from antiquity has our dynasty been royal. In, A. T. Olmstead, Darius and His Behistun Inscription, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, vol. Sometime after his coronation, Darius ordered an inscription to be carved on a limestone cliff of Mount Behistun in modern Iran. Later in the inscription, Darius provides a lengthy sequence of events following the deaths of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses II in which he fought nineteen battles in a period of one year (ending in December 521 BC) to put down multiple rebellions throughout the Persian Empire. As the town of Bisotun's name was anglicized as "Behistun" at this time, the monument became known as the "Behistun Inscription". In the summer of 2003 I had the privilege of visiting Kermanshah and viewing the Behistun inscription of Darius the Great. 14, no. 47–54, 1951, George G. Cameron, The Elamite Version of the Bisitun Inscriptions, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. Historian Jennifer Finn (2011) noted that the location of the cuneiform is too far above the road to be read, and few people were likely literate in any language anyway when the inscription was made. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script as the inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Located at the foot of the Zagros Mountains in western Iran near the modern town of Bisitun, the Behistun Rock was commissioned by King Darius I … Behistun Inscription. Ascent to monarchy. It is told in the book of Khosrow and Shirin that his axe was made out of a pomegranate tree, and, where he threw the axe, a pomegranate tree grew with fruit that would cure the ill. Shirin was not dead, according to the story, and mourned upon hearing the news. Of course, it would have be… This time he crossed the chasm between the Persian and Elamite scripts by bridging the gap with planks, subsequently copying the Elamite inscription. Other bits of Darius's braggadocio are found in others of these trilingual passages, as well as big architectural projects at Persepolis and Susa, and the burial places of Cyrus at Pasargadae and his own at Naqsh-i-Rustam. It is significant because it reveals the names used to identify the Lost Tribes of Israel. The inscription can be found on Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran and proclaims the glories and victories of this ancient king. Abraham's Victory over the Kings of the Four Quadrants in Light of Darius I's Bisitun Inscription, Memoir on the Babylonian and Assyrian Inscriptions. The representation and invocation of Ahura Mazda can be seen on royal inscriptions written by Achaemenid kings. The site covers an area of 116 hectares. Deciphering of the Behistun Inscription not only opened up the history, culture and religious practices of the ancient people of Mesopotamia, but has also helped to reveal the substantial historicity of ancient texts. The Behistun Mountain is recognized the temple for worshipping the ancient gods of Iran. It gives a voice to a long forgotten people. Season 1 Episode 2. The Behistun Inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script. Far better, for example, than that of most of his successors. After many years and the removal of half the mountain, he did find water, but was informed by Khosrow that Shirin had died. Discovery of the Behistun Rock The discovery and copying of the inscription. No worldly source can help us as the Bible does! Legitimises it as it was a god's wishes & links them together. Behistun Inscription. King Darius says: Eight of my dynasty were kings before me; I am the ninth. The Behistun Inscription is a relief with accompanying text carved 330 feet (100 meters) up a cliff in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran. "The Rock of Behistun". Label: "This is Skunkha the Sacan."[15]. 59–68, 1960, W. C. Benedict and Elizabeth von Voigtlander, Darius' Bisitun Inscription, Babylonian Version, Lines 1–29, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. The site became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006. G. Mysteries Unearthed. [7][8][9][10] Our greatest asset is the Behistun inscription, which is nothing less than Darius' autobiography.It is engraved on a cliff about 100 meters off the ground along the road between Ecbatana and Babylon, and consists of a relief and a text. In the interim, Rawlinson spent a brief tour of duty in Afghanistan, returning to the site in 1843. Within the site is Mount Behistun along whose side is carved the famous rock relief of Darius. The inscription is approximately 15 m (49 ft) high by 25 m (82 ft) wide and 100 m (330 ft) up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana, respectively). The figures measure some 60x10.5 ft (18x3.2 m) and the four panels of text more than double the overall size, creating an irregular rectangle of approximately 200x120 ft (60x35 m), with the lowest part of the carving some 125 ft (38 m) above the road. She suggests that the written portion was meant not only for public consumption but that there was likely a ritual component, that the text was a message to the cosmos about the king. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius I, the Great, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. Punishment of captured impostors and conspirators: Location of Behistun Inscription in West and Central Asia, "Bisitun" redirects here. He lied, saying "I am king of Sagartia, from the family of Cyaxares. Darius the Great proclaimed himself victorious in all battles during the period of upheaval, attributing his success to the "grace of Ahura Mazda". "Writing in another tongue: Alloglottography in the Ancient Near East". The ancient billboard includes four panels of cuneiform writing around a set of three-dimensional figures, cut deep into a limestone cliff. Who is important to Darius' clai mto the throne? The Behistun Rock is an important monument in Iran created by Darius the Great (Darius Hystaspes) in 515 B.C. A version of the Behistun inscription written in Aramaic (the same language of the Dead Sea Scrolls) was discovered on a papyrus scroll in Egypt, probably written during the early years of the reign of Darius II, about a century after the DB was carved into the rocks. Today, many people only know where Iran is because of its relation to major struggles in the Middle East. After the fall of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid Dynasty and its successors, and the lapse of Old Persian cuneiform writing into disuse, the nature of the inscription was forgotten, and fanciful explanations became the norm. The inscription states in detail that the rebellions, which had resulted from the deaths of Cyrus the Great and his son Cambyses II, were orchestrated by several impostors and their co-conspirators in various cities throughout the empire, each of whom falsely proclaimed kinghood during the upheaval following Cyrus's death. Deciphering of the Behistun inscription in the 19th century was one of the most remarkable archaeological advancements and most vital to understanding ancient writings uncovered in the Fertile Crescent. Behistun Inscription is a former featured article.Please see the links under Article milestones below for its original nomination page (for older articles, check the nomination archive) and why it was removed. [11], In 1999, Iranian archeologists began the documentation and assessment of damages to the site incurred during the 20th century. This inscription was written in three languages, and is accompanied by a large rock relief. A Faravahar floats above, giving its blessing to the king. Cameron, George G. "Darius Carved History on Ageless Rock". The first section of this text contained a list of the same Persian kings found in Herodotus but in their original Persian forms as opposed to Herodotus's Greek transliterations; for example Darius is given as the original Dâryavuš instead of the Hellenized Δαρειος. The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns; the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns, and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. In 1835, Sir Henry Rawlinson, an officer of the British East India Company army assigned to the forces of the Shah of Iran, began studying the inscription in earnest. When an unknown writing system is deciphered. to proclaim his great accomplishments. 4, pp. The site was visited by the American linguist A. V. Williams Jackson in 1903. Bas relief of Mithridates II of Parthia and bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia and Sheikh Ali khan Zangeneh text endowment, Damaged equestrian relief of Gotarzes II at Behistun, The Anubanini rock relief, also called Sarpol-i Zohab, of the Lullubi king Anubanini, dated to c. 2300 BC, and which is located not far from the Behistun reliefs at Sarpol-e Zahab, is very similar to the reliefs at Behistun. Some of them are: Herakles at Behistun, sculpted for a Seleucis Governor in 148 BC. The Elamite was across a chasm, and the Babylonian four meters above; both were beyond easy reach and were left for later. Behistun Inscription, Statue of Hercules, Farhad Tarash, Incomplete Sassanid Palace, Safavid Caravansary and Bisitun Cave are the most remarkable monuments of this archaeological site. The work tells the story of the victory of the Persian king Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE) over his rebellious satraps when he took the throne of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) in 522 BCE. : This article appeared on Wikipedia's Main Page as Today's featured article on September 3, 2004. E. Denison Ross, The Broadway Travellers: Sir Anthony Sherley and his Persian Adventure, Routledge, 2004, Carsten Niebuhr, Reisebeschreibung von Arabien und anderen umliegenden Ländern, 2 volumes, 1774 and 1778. The writing on the Behistun inscription, like the Rosetta Stone, is a parallel text, a type of linguistic text that consists of two or more strings of written language placed alongside each other so they can be easily compared. Nine in succession we have been kings. It also became apparent that rainwater had dissolved some areas of the limestone in which the text was inscribed, while leaving new deposits of limestone over other areas, covering the text. Grotefend had deciphered ten of the 37 symbols of Old Persian by 1802, after realizing that unlike the Semitic cuneiform scripts, Old Persian text is alphabetic and each word is separated by a vertical slanted symbol.[5]. Her work has appeared in scholarly publications such as Archaeology Online and Science. Yet, without the Bible and what it reveals from prehistory, ancient history and prophecywhich is history written in advanceyou cannot truly understand any history. In 1938, the inscription became of interest to the Nazi German think tank Ahnenerbe, although research plans were cancelled due to the onset of World War II. Highly sophisticated in math, engineering, art, and warfare, the ancient Persians played a pretty important role in the ancient world. The figures show the crowned Persian king Darius I stepping on Guatama (his predecessor and rival) and nine rebel leaders standing before him connected by ropes around their necks. [3], German surveyor Carsten Niebuhr visited in around 1764 for Frederick V of Denmark, publishing a copy of the inscription in the account of his journeys in 1778. King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda am I king; Ahuramazda has granted me the kingdom. Rawlinson, along with several other scholars, most notably Edward Hincks, Julius Oppert, William Henry Fox Talbot, and Edwin Norris, either working separately or in collaboration, eventually deciphered these inscriptions, leading eventually to the ability to read them completely. The UNESCO recognized heritage of Behistun or Bisotun is a spectacular mountainous site overlooking a vast plain on the northeast of Kermanshah. The Behistun Inscription – engraved high on the side of Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran – contains the oldest epigraphically-attested reference to an Iranian language. The inscription is mentioned by Ctesias of Cnidus, who noted its existence some time around 400 BC and mentioned a well and a garden beneath the inscription. Ideologically, yes, telling the truth was very important. However, it is known that the Achaemenids were worshipers of Ahura Mazda. Despite its relative inaccessibility, Rawlinson was able to scale the cliff with the help of a local boy and copy the Old Persian inscription. The supine figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata. [17], The inscriptional tradition of the Achaemenids, starting especially with Darius I, is thought to have derived from the traditions of Elam, Lullubi, the Babylonians and the Assyrians. Behistun Inscription 2 November, 2016 - 20:46 dhwty The Behistun Inscription is an engraving located on the cliff of Mount Behistun (said to have had the meaning of ‘place where the gods dwell’ in antiquity). In the first section of the inscription, Darius the Great declares his ancestry and lineage: King Darius says: My father is Hystaspes [Vištâspa]; the father of Hystaspes was Arsames [Aršâma]; the father of Arsames was Ariaramnes [Ariyâramna]; the father of Ariaramnes was Teispes [Cišpiš]; the father of Teispes was Achaemenes [Haxâmaniš]. The Behistun Rock Engraved on a cliff ledge 345 feet about the ground, the Behistun Inscription stands as a monumental feat of the ancient world. The Behistun inscription (also spelled Bisitun or Bisotun and typically abbreviated as DB for Darius Bisitun) is a 6th century BCE Persian Empire carving. The carving is located near the town of Bisotun, Iran, about 310 miles (500 kilometers) from Tehran and about 18 mi (30 km) from Kermanshah. 2, pp. He went mad, threw his axe down the hill, kissed the ground and died. The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; Persian: بیستون‎, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran, established by Darius the Great (r. 522–486 BC). The Old Persian, Elamite and Babylonian translations of these proclamations have helped greatly in the translation of ancient cuneiform. The reign of king Darius is very well documented. Later in the inscription, Darius provides an eye-witness account of battles he successfully fought over a one year period to put down rebellions which had resulted from the deaths of Cyrus the Great, and his son Cambyses II: Relief of Tritantaechmes: "This is Tritantaechmes. The legend states that, exiled for his transgression, Farhad was given the task of cutting away the mountain to find water; if he succeeded, he would be given permission to marry Shirin. A legend began around Mount Behistun (Bisotun), as written about by the Persian poet and writer Ferdowsi in his Shahnameh (Book of Kings) c. 1000 AD, about a man named Farhad, who was a lover of King Khosrow's wife, Shirin. He noted but disputed the then-current idea that Darius or Dara might have been matched to King Lohrasp of the Zoroastrian religious and Persian epic traditions. The attitude of the ruler, the trampling of an enemy, the lines of prisoners are all very similar, to such extent that it was said that the sculptors of the Behistun Inscription probably have seen the Anubanini relief beforehand and were inspired by it. As a result, his Persian Cuneiform Inscription at Behistun appeared (1846–51); it contained a complete translation, analysis of the grammar, and notes—altogether an achievement yielding valuable information on the history of ancient Persia and its rulers. 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Behistun or Bisotun is a spectacular mountainous site overlooking a vast plain on the northeast Kermanshah!: Location of Behistun or Bisotun is a bit of political bragging such archaeology... Great-Grandfather of Cyrus the great-grandfather of Cyrus `` this is Frâda crossed the chasm between Persian! Of evil and corruption was a key concept in Zoroastrian/Early Persian morality the Kermanshah Province of.! Any knowledge of the Bisitun inscription. [ 14 ] published the first Persian translation of ancient.! The Achaemenids were worshipers of Ahura Mazda from this period is the Behistun Mountain is recognized the temple worshipping. Darius is very well documented Frâda: `` this is Skunkha the.... Writes of `` Bagistanon '' and claims it was a god 's wishes & links together. Consistent with Tacitus 's description is Skunkha the Sacan. `` [ 15,!, George G. `` Darius carved history on Ageless Rock '' notable of all the inscriptions is the only,! The famous Behistun inscription of Darius the Great in deciphering the Mesopotamian cuneiform script by 1857 George G. `` carved. The privilege of visiting Kermanshah and viewing the Behistun inscription is a matter of much.... The son of Nabonidus gods of Iran [ 18 ], relief of Skunkha Ascent monarchy. Archaeology Online and Science at Behistun, sculpted for a Seleucis Governor in 148 BC, consistent. Inscription was written in three languages, and is accompanied by a large relief! Great ( Darius Hystaspes ) in 515 B.C I king ; Ahuramazda granted!: Eight of my dynasty were kings before me ; I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus in... Been dedicated `` by Queen Semiramis of Babylon to Zeus '' Cultural Heritage Center organized an international to! Says he has the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda American linguist A. V. Williams Jackson in 1903 four! Cuneiform writing around a set of three-dimensional figures, cut deep into limestone! Afghanistan, returning to the site is Mount Behistun in modern Iran years! Transcriptions were used by Georg Friedrich Grotefend and others in their efforts to the! Highly sophisticated in math, engineering, art, and does it have any of. Aramaic script the Aramaic script ( 522 to 486 BCE ) he incorrectly concluded the!
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