Mangrove soils are found nutrient limited, particularly in N and P (Reich and Oleksyn, 2004; Lovelock et al., 2007). Research on mangroves received little focus earlier in the 20th century. Soil salinity exhibited significantly negative correlations with the vegetation characteristics of both sites from riverbank towards inland. Prop roots are a common sight among mangroves. The organic carbon and organic matter values ranged from 0.38 and 0.65-13.31 and 22.89%, respectively. Physical properties of the soil from different studies conducted in different mangrove forests worldwide are presented in Table 1. Transect cum quadrant-based analyses of vegetation and soil samples were adopted for this purpose in consultation with local community members. Spatial differences in soil salinity influence the species composition and distribution of the mangrove forest due to differences in the ability to support high and fluctuating salinity between mangrove trees (Verheyden et al., 2005; Robert et al., 2009). which thrive in the anoxic condition (Peter and Sivasothi, 2002). 2). 1a). The current knowledge on physico-chemical properties of soil, soil nutrition, ecological relationship of soil and vegetation and relationship of soil with species composition and structure of mangrove forests in tropical mangrove environment is reviewed and discussed. The high level of carbon allocation to roots in many forests (Komiyama et al., 2008) in conjunction with mangrove litter fall and the low rates of decomposition imposed by anoxic soils results in mangrove ecosystems being rich in organic matter (Nedwell et al., 1994). Nutrient content of the soils and their availability is one of the major factors influencing mangrove forest composition, structure and productivity (Reef et al., 2010). Soil Mangrove soils in Singapore are of recent marine alluvium, transported as sediment and deposited by rivers and the sea, which have been classified by geographers as the 'Kranji series'. Some researchers found soil pH ranging from 2.87-6.40 (Khan et al., 1993; Sukardjo, 1994; Ukpong, 1997; Rambok et al., 2010; Ferreira et al., 2010; Moreno and Calderon, 2011). The results showed that the mangrove site jointly managed by a non-governmental organization and local forest dependents was performing noticeably better than the other site under surveillance of the State Forest Department. Research results revealed significant variation in the composition of mangrove soils at different depths, clay mineralogy, total organic carbon content and carbon stock (Ferreira et al., 2010). Suitable Crops: It is suitable for growing groundnuts, pulses, millet… Shoot growth was 10‐fold when fertilized with P and twofold with N fertilization, indicating that stunted growth of these mangroves is partially due to nutrient deficiency. The input of potassium in soil has improved the growth of Rhizophora apiculata seedlings [ 37 ]. Growth rates of mangroves within the roost were nearly six times higher than trees outside the roost. Soil pH is among the environmental factors that regulate the growth of species and zonal distributions of mangroves (Wakushima, Kuraishi, & Sakurai, 1994). Mangrove collapse ‘inevitable’ unless emissions curbed Mangrove forests, which grow in brackish, muddy, coastal waters, are some of the planet’s most important carbon sinks. The delivery of nutrients in sediments and water during tidal inundation and sporadically in floodwaters associated with cyclones and hurricanes provides significant sources of nutrients for mangroves (Lugo and Snedaker, 1974; Davis III et al., 2003). This study is, therefore, aims at providing an overview of soil properties, nutritional and ecological relationship of soil with composition and structure of mangrove species in tropical forests. (2012). We took an approach to describing the effects of soil physico-chemical factors on ecophysiology and vegetation in mangroves. Most species had an optimum pH range except Avicennia marina, which occurred in varied pH conditions. As mangroves are known to be especially effective in the resorption of nutrients from leaves prior to litter fall (Rao et al. Evaluating the relative contributions of hydroperiod and soil fertility on growth of south Florida mangroves Series title Hydrobiologia DOI 10.1007/s10750-006-0139-7 Volume 569 Issue 1 Year Published 2006 Language English how soil pH affects the growth of mangroves, we can possibly tweak or enhance the environment to suit the mangroves better and inform the general public on how air pollution affects the mangrove ecosystems as well. A complex of environmental factors determines the actual species composition and structure in nature, although, each plant has a certain limit of tolerance for each factor (Waring and Major, 1964; Joshi and Ghose, 2003). Continuous inundation caused by sea level rise along with no vertical adjustment of the mangrove soil surface may eventually reduce overall growth rates of mangroves (Krauss et al. However, the soil can be fertile by adding manures and fertilizers. In some forests the salinity values are obtained more than 30‰ (Sukardjo, 1994; Moreno and Calderon, 2011). The authors would like to thank Dr. Amirul Alam, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia for his critical reading of the manuscript. Soils are made up of sand, silt and clay in different combinations and mud actually refers to mixture of silt and clay, both of which are rich in organic matter. However, the salinity value of 14.99� is also observed by Das et al. Ecological group classification in Sundarbans mangroves indicates that Avicennia marina and A. officinalis can tolerate wide range of soil salinity while Aegiceras corniculatum, Ceriops decandra, Dalbergia spinosa, Derris trifoliate and Excoecaria agallocha are restricted to low salinity areas. Recent findings suggest that different soil properties influence the vegetation, species composition and structure of mangrove forests. mock mangroves (Lugo & Snedaker, 1974; Ewel etal., 1998). In another study, it was observed that Avicennia marina was the most salinity tolerant species, followed by Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops tagal and Lumnitzera racemosa. Mangroves are salt tolerant and relative tolerance varies among species. The element phosphorus is measured in different units in different forest areas. Most of the vegetation (basal area, species diversity index, tree density) and few of the soil (pH, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Na%, soil total C, and organic C stocks) parameters were in significantly superior conditions in the first site than the later in terms of ecological health (p < 0.01). Soil pH is an important factor for plant growth, but the actual mechanism by which soil pH in inland mangroves affects the growth of plant7.5 While the first site represented the growth of a multi-layered canopy with mixed species association, the later site was characterized by mono-specific dominance of the Avicennia varieties primarily due to indiscriminate exploitative activities. Variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among soil and plant factors (Lovelock et al., 2005). Mangroves are trees and shrubs that aren’t necessarily closely related to one another, but they do share the unique capability of growing within reach of the tides in salty soil. (1994a, b). Most previous investigations of nutrient limitations to mangrove have focused on macronutrients N and P, which most likely limiting structure and productivity of mangroves (Krauss et al., 2008). Alternatively, an active human intervention engaging the local forest dependents in decision-making and implementation initiatives regarding recognition of actual causes of degradation, zone-wise selection of species, fixation of gestation period, protection, and equitable usufruct sharing was recommended as the prerequisite towards successful restoration of these fragile mangrove ecosystems. The red color of soil is due to the presence of iron oxide. Mangroves also have buoyant seeds that are suited to dispersal in water. Several available plant nutrients have been studied in different mangrove forests of the world. Mangrove forests are usually enclosed and protected environments with low-energy waters, which is favourable for the sedimentation of clay particles (Cintron and Schaeffer-Novelli, 1983; Wolanski et al., 1998); however, soils containing higher sand particles have also been reported (Clough, 1992). Reef et al. Because of the waterlogged conditions, the soil is also anaerobic, without access to oxygen. Mangrove cover and mangrove growth are inversely proportional to the geological age of the islands, which apparently supports the idea of mangroves as pioneering coastal vegetation in the archipelago. The forest structure, composition and productivity of mangroves are highly variable (UNESCO., 1998). CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL IN MANGROVE FOREST. Most can grow well in fresh water, but mangrove communities are not usually Most can grow well in fresh water, but mangrove communities are not usually found in strict freshwater environments. The soil of the mangrove forest acts as a reservoir of carbon that is in interaction with the atmosphere, storing about three times the biomass that makes up the vegetation and structure of mangroves (Sa et al., 2001). Organic carbon and organic matter contents of the mangrove soils are widely varied in different mangrove forests of the world (Table 4). The growth of mangroves Mangroves depend on a complex series of dynamic natural tidal processes that create the conditions for their survival. Black mangroves live on higher ground and make many pneumatophores (specialised root-like structures which stick up out of the soil like straws for breathing) which are also covered in lenticels. Seven pedons of mangrove soil, five under fluvial and two under marine influence, located in the Subaé River basin were described and classified. On the effects of management and salinity gradient on vegetation and soil parameters is reported that tidal seemed. Correlations with the vegetation, species composition and structure of mangroves are diverse. Clayey types significantly influence ecophysiology, vegetation, species composition and structure mangrove. Salinity and pH for species composition and structure of mangroves has been conducted on the effects of management and gradient... 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