"White phosphorus (P4) is the elemental form of phosphorus used in smoke munitions. What they came up with is thermite which can get hot enough to melt iron and steel. Most varieties are not explosive, but can create brief bursts of heat and high temperature in a small area. The chronicler Jean of Joinville wrote about a barrel-sized container with a tail of fire which was launched from a catapult and exploded in a burst of flames when it landed. It also absorbs infrared radiation, allowing it to defeat thermal imaging systems. I collected about 40 pounds on Ocean Beach in San Francisco, in less than half an hour using a large magnet. It Burns so hot it will melt thru steel. Like thermite, it has been used in artillery shells to create incendiary effects. When the aluminum and oxygen in the mixture combine, the thermite will ignite, generating high temperatures. A UN spokesperson indicated that there were difficulties in extinguishing the fires, stating "You can’t put it [white phosphorus] out with traditional methods such as fire extinguishers. Chemically, thermite requires two components with specific characteristics ; An incendiary bomb is used to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, … Forces Battle Into Heart of Fallujah", "Pentagon Reverses Position and Admits U.S. In the case of weapons using felt-impregnated submunitions, incomplete combustion may occur resulting in up to 15% of the WP content remaining unburned. Napalm is the most notorious incendiary substance, but it is only one of more than 180. When contained it burns even hotter.  The March/April 2005 issue of an official Army publication called Field Artillery magazine reported that "White phosphorus proved to be an effective and versatile munition and a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes. In the days before modern weapons technology, the psychological effect of such a weapon was as devastating as its physical effect. The purchase DC given is for a box of 6 grenades. (2) Filler-- 15 ounces of white phosphorus. White is much more reactive than red phosphorus and can be heated to make the red allotrope, which can then be purified with hot water. It is used usually to weld railroad tracks solid all the way through. Britannic: A Century After Being Lost to the Waves, Opened to Divers, The 10,000 room German WW2 resort complex never had a single guest, now luxury beachfront Condos, The “Red Zone” In France Is So Dangerous that 100 Years After WWI It Is Still A No-Go Area.  The Goldstone report accepted that white phosphorus is not illegal under international law but did find that the Israelis were "systematically reckless in determining its use in built-up areas". You need sand but we do not have any sand in the compound. This effect has been likened to three dimensional textured privacy glass—the smoke cloud does not obstruct an image, but thoroughly scrambles it. The legend of Greek fire was well known so he assumed it to be this. White phosphorus is extremely flammable. Trump says he'll leave White House on one condition. Although similar in form of action, gunpowder does not burn nearly as hot as thermite.  Other common names include WP and the slang term "Willie Pete" or "Willie Peter" derived from William Peter, the World War II phonetic alphabet for "WP", which is still sometimes used in military jargon. , On 5 January the Times reported that telltale smoke associated with white phosphorus had been seen in the vicinity of Israeli shelling. White phosphorus munitions are weapons which use one of the common allotropes of the chemical element phosphorus. True? Field concentrations are usually harmless, but at high concentrations the smoke can cause temporary irritation to the eyes, mucous membranes of the nose, and respiratory tract. M15 White Phosphorous grenade I would say that the most important difference between the two is that thermite contains its own oxidizer and cannot be smothered by isolating it from oxygen.  The agency cautioned that studies used to determine the MRL were based on extrapolations from animal testing and may not accurately reflect the health risk to humans. It is an incendiary.  In May 2009, Colonel Gregory Julian, a spokesman for General David McKiernan, the overall commander of US and NATO forces in Afghanistan, confirmed that Western military forces in Afghanistan use white phosphorus in order to illuminate targets or as an incendiary to destroy bunkers and enemy equipment. Red phosphorus ("RP") burns cooler than WP and eliminates a few other disadvantages as well, but offers exactly the same weight efficiency. Yeh, hot thermite. Various disadvantages of WP are discussed below, but one which is particular to smoke-screening is "pillaring". Israel’s Manual on the Rules of Warfare(2006) states the following: During ‘Operation Cast Lead’ (December 2008 – January 2009), the Israeli Defence Forces used two types of weapons containing white phosphorus: exploding munitions and ‘smoke projectiles’. . Thermite (/ ˈ θ ɜːr m aɪ t /) is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder and metal oxide.When ignited by heat, thermite undergoes an exothermic reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction. The other prominent incendiary weapon of World War Two was Napalm. Thermite is a material used in welding to melt metals together. Homemade thermite can destroy washing machines or make a hole in a frozen lake. White phosphorus replaced thermite, … The United States Military mandates that incendiary weapons, where deployed, not be used "in such a way as to cause unnecessary suffering." It was also said to be far more destructive, burning for three times as long. When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames. , White phosphorus munitions were used extensively in Korea, Vietnam and later by Russian forces in First Chechen War and Second Chechen War. The fun thing about magnetite is that you can find it lying around any beaches in many parts of the country. Derick. Fire has played a devastating part in the history of war. In air, it catches fire at temperatures 10-15 degrees above room temperature.   British soldiers also made extensive use of white phosphorus grenades during the Falklands War to clear out Argentine positions as the peaty soil they were constructed on tended to lessen the impact of fragmentation grenades. Its thickness created a narrower stream than liquid so could be ricocheted around corners, reaching otherwise inaccessible targets. 3.2 kilograms of smoke for every kilogram of WP); however, it may absorb more because phosphoric acid and its variants are hygroscopic. As a result, smoke-producing white phosphorus munitions are very common, particularly as smoke grenades for infantry, loaded in defensive grenade launchers on tanks and other armoured vehicles, and as part of the ammunition allotment for artillery or mortars. What Is Phosphorus?  Most were released in 1920 after an inquiry. A combination of aluminum and ferric oxide, better known as rust, its innocuous components combined into a deadly fuel. For its latest charge, the Livermore agent defeat team, in partnership with the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), has developed a thermite-based payload that is far more effective than white phosphorus and much easier to work with. Fuel 2. When it was used in the past it was blown apart. So, this being considered, using Napalm, thermite, white phosphorus, and other incendiary compounds against them is feasible. White phosphorus, yellow phosphorus or simply tetraphosphorus (P 4) exists as molecules made up of four atoms in a tetrahedral structure. White phosphorus is used in smoke, illumination and incendiary munitions, and is commonly the burning element of tracer ammunition. In the case of a thermite reaction, the oxygen component is provided by the metal oxides in the thermite. Thermite burns at 2500C. What will thermite not burn through? In reality, Muslim forces fighting against the Crusaders did not have the recipe for Greek fire – the Byzantines had made sure of that. Bound up in resinous material and tarred rope, thermite bombs were dropped on British cities by German zeppelins in some of the earliest air raids. -87°C, dangerous level ca. At the start of the Normandy campaign, 20% of American 81 mm mortar ammunition consisted of M57 point-detonating bursting smoke rounds using WP filler. White phosphorous, while difficult to smother, still requires an oxygen source. Oxygen Take any one away and it will stop. , During the 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict, Israel said that it had used phosphorus shells "against military targets in open ground" in south Lebanon. Nations discussed the topic in depth in the 1970s during the process that led to the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its first three protocols, including Protocol III on incendiary weapons. Article 1 of Protocol III of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons defines an incendiary weapon as "any weapon or munition which is primarily designed to set fire to objects or to cause burn injury to persons through the action of flame, heat, or combination thereof, produced by a chemical reaction of a substance delivered on the target". For more general information, see, World War I, the inter-war period and World War II, The Tunnels of Cu Chi; 2005 Tom Mangold and John Penycate, Tunnel Rat in Vietnam; 2012 Gordon L Rothman, Last edited on 29 November 2020, at 07:51, Allotropes of phosphorus § White phosphorus, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, "Violence subsides for Marines in Fallujah", Violence subsides for Marines in Fallujah, "U.S. In November 2005, the US ambassador to the United Kingdom, Robert Tuttle, wrote to The Independent also denying that the United States used white phosphorus as a weapon in Fallujah. If on the other hand the toxic properties of white phosphorus are specifically intended to be used as a weapon, that, of course, is prohibited, because the way the convention is structured or applied, any chemicals used against humans or animals that cause harm or death through the toxic properties of the chemical are considered chemical weapons. When contained it burns even hotter. The appearance of this cloud forming is easily recognised; one sees a shower of burning particles spraying outward, followed closely by distinctive streamers of white smoke, which rapidly coalesce into a fluffy, very pure white cloud (unless illuminated by a coloured light source). Even when not weaponized, it could be unleashed during pillaging of towns, leading to their destruction. White Phosphorous. What a deflagrating spoon is and how it is used? Right up to the modern day, other weapons can also be used as incendiaries. Oxyacetylene welding torches burn at 3500C.  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